230102, Server1: http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/index+.html or Server2: http://color.li.tu-berlin.de/index+.html
An alternate URL for the Server2 is since 2010 http://130.149.60.45/~farbmetrik/index+.html

For this page of this TUB web site, see
index+ in English, or indexDE+ in German.

For the main page of this TUB web site (NOT archive), see
index.html in English, or indexDE.html in German.

For the archive information (2000-2009) of the BAM server "www.ps.bam.de" (2000-2018) about colour test charts, colorimetric calculations, standards, and publications, see
A/indexAE.html in English, or A/indexAG.html in German.

Welcome to a website colorimetry and colour image technology

Other Links to web sites about colour education, colour vision, elementary colours, colorimetry, and colour image technology

Remark: The design of the following Table 1 considers the use on mobile devices

Table 1: Series: content and description; creation date;
links to many pages without and with figures; two example pages


ME: Colour education;
figures to be used for teaching
(2015) ME MEI ME02 ME08

AE: Test charts CD ISO 9241-306E:2016
for eight contrast steps
(2017) AE AEI AE06 AE36

BE: Ostwald optimal colours;
chromaticities (ai, bi) and chromatic values
(Ai, Bi) (i=0 to 7)
(2017) BE BEI BE28 BE32

CE: Munsell and Ostwald colours
and LMS and XYZ colorimetry
(2018) CE CEI CE08 CE76

DE: Special colorimetric properties
for colour vision and reproduction
(2018) DE DEI DE23 DE34

EE: Models for relative colour vision
and applications for colour management
(2019) EE EEI EE31 EE34


GE: Interpretation of rgb-colour data
as device colour data olv*
(2009) GE GEI GE02 GE08

HE: Interpretation of rgb-colour data
as elementary colour data rgb*
(2009) HE HEI HE02 HE99

IE: Display Measurement of a 48 step hue circle;
test charts of DIN 33872-1 to -6
(2009) IE IEI IE36 IE43

JE: Optimal and elementary colours;
PDT (LMS) cone sensitivities and hue spacing
(2010) JE JEI JE50 JE53

KE: Measurement CRT monitor and LCD display;
chroma diagrams (a*, b*) for 8 reflections
(2010) KE KEI KE10 KE11

LE: sRGB display and LCD projector
for eigth room reflections of ISO 9241-306
(2011) LE LEI LE40 LE46

ME: Figures for colour education;
colour figures prepared for teaching
(2013) ME MEI ME02 ME07

NE: Figures for colour education;
with elementary rgb* colour definition
(2010) NE NEI NE01 NE06

OE: 20 step elementary circle of DIN 33872-4;
Chroma transfer of 5-step series and 6 hues
(2011) OE OEI OE03 OE05

PE: Test chart with 1080 standard colours;
20 step elementary hue circle
(2013) PE PEI PE40 PE70

QE: 5 and 16 step colours of DIN 33872-1 to 6;
application of Frame File Linearization Method
(2013) QE QEI QE00 QE90

RE: 5 and 16 step colours of DIN 33872-1 to -6;
test chart with 1080 colours
(2013) RE REI RE00 RE50

SE: Eight contrast steps of ISO 9241-306;
Ostwald colours and colour diagrams
(2013) SE SEI SE51 SE63

TE: Ostwald colours and colour-tresholds;
LMS cone sensitivities and saturation
(2013) TE TEI TE22 TE30

UE: Colour metrics; colour-difference formulae;
line-element formulae and colour-differences
(2014) UE UEI UE08 UE13

VE: CIE colorimetry and cone sensitivity;
Ostwald colours and colour diagrams
(2015) VE VEI VE40 VE77

WE: Application for colour-difference datasets;
lightness formulae, contrast, and sensitivity
(2015) WE WEI WE42 WE53

XE: Relative and scaled colour differences;
performance of colour difference formulae
(2016) XE XEI XE00 XE08

YE: Colour difference data sets;
performance of colour difference formulae
(2016) YE YEI YE20 YE21

ZE: Cone sensitivities and elementary colours;
chromaticity diagrams and confusion lines
(2017) ZE ZEI ZE78 ZE89

Colour, Colour Vision, and Elementary Colours in Colour Image Technology

For an introduction to this field a booklet of Klaus Richter (2012, 2015) Colour, colour vision, and elementary colours in colour image technology is available for free in offset print in English and German. Three internet versions in English, French, and German are available for free download from an ISO server, see for the English version (85 pages, 2 MB) http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/ES15.PDF

Since 2015 there is a possibility for free download of this booklet, and test pages for the:
- six languages English (E), German (G), French (F), Spanish (S), Italian (I), and Norwegian (N)
- three linearized outputs for a standard monitor (S), for standard offset print (L), and for a laser printer (P), see color/index.html. This publication is a description of the Karl-Miescher exhibition Colour and Colour Vision at the department Lighting Technology of the Berlin University of Technology.

The first 75 pages include 130 colour figures, and have the format A5. The last 15 pages include 15 test charts according to ISO/IEC, CEN, and DIN standards, or standard documents. Similar draft test pages of these standards can be found also in different folders of this website.

For many figures for colour education, see ME
For one example see the following file ME02 of the image series ME. (in addition for download as file in format PDF or PS):
MG02/ME02L0NP.PDF



For the available colour images in different languages, see
ME in english, or MG in german, or MS in spanish, or MF in french, or MI in italien, or MN in norwegian.

Development of a device-independent visual RGB*-colour space for colour vision and colour image reproduction

Some fundamental colorimetric and colour vision data for the work with the device-independent RGB*-colour space include the publications:
Richter, K. (2014), Trends for CIE-ISO-colour standards for input and output of all colour devices with relative CIELAB colour coordinates rgb*, see (770 KB, 15 pages)
CIE_TC42_DFWG_14.PDF
Richter, K. (2016),Output Linearization Method OLM16 for Displays, Offset, and Printers, see (60 pages, 1,3 MB) OUTLIN16_01.PDF

Links to a similar archive website (2000-2009) of the BAM in Berlin
Since 2018 the Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) indicates that the website
http://www.ps.bam.de is no longer maintained. This BAM website shows that a subfolder "A" (=Archive) of this TU server allows to navigate to approximately all parts of the BAM archive server (2000-2009).
Usually many links "http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/A/XX" will work instead of the links "http://www.ps.bam.de/XX".
For the content of the archive TU web server (2000-2009), see
A/indexAE.html in English or A/indexAG.html in German.

Under this archive server and under additional information one can find colour test charts according to ISO/IEC 15775:1999, DIN 33866-1 to 5:2000, DIN 33872-1 to -6:2010, ISO/IEC TR 24705:2005, ISO EN DIN 9142-306:2008 and 2018.

For additional information see section 2 (down). On the following web pages one can find colour test charts according to ISO/IEC 15775:1999, DIN 33866-1 to 5:2000, ISO/IEC TR 24705:2005, ISO 9142-306:2008 and 2015(CD), CIE R8-09:2015 and additional test charts.

For example pages (P) with information of the RGB*-colour space in different languages see the web pages,
PE in english, or PG in german, or PS in spanish, or PF in french, or PI in italien, or PN in norwegian.

For pages (PXI) with this and additional image (I) information in different languages (recommended internet speed >1MB/s),
see PEI in english, or PGI in german, or PSI in spanish, or PFI in french, or PII in italien, or PNI in norwegian.

For the following pages (Q) in different languages,
see QE in english, or QG in german, or QS in spanish, or QF in french, or QI in italien, or QN in norwegian.

For additional pages (R) in different languages,
see RE in english, or RG in german, or RS in spanish, or RF in french, or RI in italien, or RN in norwegian.

For additional pages (S) in different languages,
see SE in english, or SG in german, or SS in spanish, or SF in french, or SI in italien, or SN in norwegian.

For additional pages (T) in different languages,
see TE in english, or TG in german, or TS in spanish, or TF in french, or TI in italien, or TN in norwegian.

From these pages, for example RE, with only table content one can move to pages with the symbol name "I" (I=Image), for example REI, with addtional image information in the second part.

For screen working places the following test charts are of special importance.


Colour output on displays at work places for eigth viewing conditions (eight increasing luminance reflections on the display by the office light) according to ISO EN DIN 9241-306:2008
For the display working places the following test charts are of special importance.
- Colour display output for 8 viewing conditions with ISO/IEC-test charts according to ISO/IEC 15775:1999, DIN 33866-1 to -5:2000, and ISO/IEC TR 24705:2005, see
15775E.html
- Colour display output for 8 viewing conditions with DIN-test charts according to DIN 33872-1 to 6:2010, see
33872E.html
- Colour display output for 8 viewing conditions with test charts for 1080 colours, and an ISO/IEC image, see
1080E.html
Remark: This web site includes examples for the test file output by a Frame File which includes the 1-Minus-Relation (1MR), the Device Hue output (DH), the device independent Device to Elementary Hue output (DEH) according to CIE R1-47:2009, and the output for the eight viewing conditions.


1. Content of folders of this TUB-web site with many colour figures

For the new ISO-CIE-trend to a device independent and elementary visual RGB*-colour space for printers and displays, see
IE in English or IG in German or
JE in English or JG in German or
KE in English or KG in German or
LE in English or LG in German for eight display reflections
OE in English or OG in German for eight display reflections and ISO/IEC and DIN-test charts

The following web pages show real and intended CIELAB data and CIELAB colour differences,
real rgb/cmyk and corrected rgb data and/or a constant rgb->cmyk transfer to reach the intended CIELAB data.
The device and elementary hue output according to CIE R1-47 is intended for the devices:
- standard sRGB with RGB output,
- standard offset with CMYK output (4 colours with only Black K for grey output),
- standard offset with CMY0 output (always only 3 colours CMY for output),
- a PostScript laser printer with CMYK output (4 colours with only Black K for grey output).


2. New trend in image technology to a device independent visual RGB*colour space

New developments lead to a visual RGB* colour space, which includes many visual properties of colour vision, and is device independent contrary to all other device dependent RGB colour spaces.

For the Information technology the development of a visual RGB colour space, which is here called RGB* (star) colour space, has been required in resolutions of ISO/TC159/SC 4/WG 2 "Ergonomics ­ Visual display requirements", and of ISO/IEC SC28 "Office Equipment" in resolutions to the CIE Division 1 "Vision and Colour" and the CIE Division 8 "Image Technology".

The two CIE-Reportership Reports:
CIE R1-47:2009: Hue Angles of Elementary Colours
CIE R1-57:2013: Border between Blackish and Luminous Colours
are important steps of this development.
For free download see the two archive URLs of the two former public papers:
Thorstein Seim (2009), Reportership Report CIE R1-47, Hue angles of elementary colours, see (35 pages),
http://web.archive.org/web/20160304130704/http://files.cie.co.at/526.pdf
Thorstein Seim (2013), Reportership Report CIE R1-57, Border between Blackish and Luminous Colours, see (23 pages),
http://web.archive.org/web/20150413002133/http://files.cie.co.at/716_CIE%20R1-57%20Report%20Jul-13%20v.2.pdf

In the report CIE R1-47 the CIELAB hue angles hab = 26, 92, 162, and 272 degree, which agree to the hue angles of the CIE-test colours no 9 to 12 according to the CIE-Publication 13.3, are recommended as hue angles for the elementary colours Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue RJGB. These hue angles are used in DIN 33872-1 to 6 for the input and output on monitors, displays, and printers.

In the report CIE R1-57 the colours of the colour attribute blackness n*=0 are described. The CIE tristimulues value Y changes depending on chromaticity. Such colours are used in the colour systems of Ostwald, DIN 6164, NCS, and sRGB.

The CIE-Reportership Report
CIE R8-09:2015 Output Linearization Methods for Displays and Printers with K. Richter as CIE reporter includes the present state of this development. The CIE goal is described by the following sentence:
"Make a report on proposals for the application of output linearization methods. The output may cover the device and elementary hue output of displays and printers." There is a free download of CIE R8-09:2015 (61 pages) only for about 150 members of CIE Division 8 "Image Technology" from the CIE CollTool server. Aproximately the same technical content is available in a paper of K. Richter 2016, Output linearization method OLM16 for displays, printers, and offset print (61 pages, 1,3 MB, format A4), with revised links in 2019, see OUTLIN16_01.PDF.

For newer pages with further basic information and examples, see
UE, VE, WE, XE, YE in english or
UG, VG, WG, XG, YG in german

The last two pages include data about the performance between the visual evaluation and the calculation of colour differences for five formulae CIELAB, CMC, CIE94, CIEDE2000, and LABJND.

3. German standards DIN 33872-1 to 6:2010

The German standards DIN 33872-1 to 6:2010-12 on Image Technology define many colour output properties for the digital DIN-test charts on monitors, displays, and printers, see
http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/A/33872E.html

The main topic of this web site are methods to fulfill the criteria of DIN 33872 for any colour device.
In general there is only one solution, which technically may be described by a transformation rgb to rgb' for monitors and printers and additionally by a transformation rgb to cmyk' for printers. If the manufactures have linearized their devices in CIELAB, for example according to ISO/IEC TR 15797 (which happens more and more rarely), then it is valid rgb' = rgb for any colour.

If this is not the case then colour measurement and output linearization in CIELAB is necessary for the different colour devices, for example a colour laser and a photo printer.

Here the colour test chart output with 1080 digital colours including a 9x9x9 rgb colour grid are used in digital files to measure the start and the linearized output in CIELAB, see for example the test chart (4 pages, 400 KB)
IE00L0NP.PDF
The results are for example shown in the device colour space (8 pages, 3,9 MB)
GE87L0NP.PDF
or in the elementary colour space (8 pages, 3,9 MB).
HE87L0NP.PDF
The even pages show the start output and the uneven pages the linearized photo printer output in four opponent hue planes, for example R-G, R25J-G25B, R50J-G50B, R75J-G75B.

4. Relative Elementary Colour System (RECS) as reference

A reference colour output is available in standard offset printing on standard offset paper. This colour atlas with about 2000 colour samples is called the Relative Elementary Colour System (RECS), see (1 page, 100 kByte)
RECS08.PDF

The tables rgb ­ rgb' or rgb ­ cmyk' for the linearized output in CIELAB are calculated (see FP-Files). Different efficient methods are presently discussed to apply these tables for any output on any computer operating system.

With the linearization method of this web site it is in general possible to produce both an efficient colour coding and visual output on monitors and printers and additionally an efficient material output for printers (use of only the black colorant N to print the achromatic colours and not the overprint of CMY).

For any colour device it is in general possible to fullfill all criteria of DIN 33872. If the elementary output is used as standard according to user wishes then the hue output is equal compared to the reference output of the RECS colour atlas for all colour devices. The visual assessment of the output of the 1080 colours is often possible without a reference output and to a high degree independent of the illumination (for example for the CIE illuminations D65, D50, iD65 or iD50)

For many outputs in the device colour space, see
GE or PE91 in English or GG or PG91 in German

For many outputs in the elementary colour space, see
HE or PE92 in English or HG or PG92 in German

5. Colour output on Displays for 8 luminance reflections according to ISO 9241-306:2008; new Annex E

For the device colour output with the device reflection and 3 luminance reflections Lr=0, 2,5, and 40% according to ISO 9241-306:2008 in the CIELAB (a*, b*) chroma diagram, see (1 page, 100 kByte)
KE40L0NP.PDF

The display reflection 40% may occur for example in a presentation room, if the luminance of the LCD projector and daylight is equal on the display.

A new Annex E of ISO 9241-306 is under discussion in ISO TC 159/SC4/WG2 Visual Display Requirements and includes now a chromatic test chart for eight luminance reflections between Lr=0,3 and 40% of the display output.

For the chromatic standard ISO/IEC-test chart which is intended for a linearized output at work places, see (3 pages, 400 KB)
OE58/OE58D0NP.PDF.
Form A with questions about the output properties are on page 2 and the input-output relationship for Lr=0,3% (dark room) is on page 3.

For the chromatic ISO/IEC-test chart, which simulates the output at work places for eight luminance reflections, see (24 pages, 14 MB)
OE58/OE58D1PX.PDF.
At any work place usually only one output of the pages 1, 4, 7, ..., 22 gives an equally spaced output for all the 16 step colour series and in addition the best output for the ISO/IEC-image according to ISO/IEC 15775.

Instead of the device colour output often the elementary colour output is required with equally spaced colour series between the colours RJGB and Black N, and White W. This supports the ISO-CIE-Trend to a visual RGB colour space

6. Quality check of digitale RGB image data according to DIN 15078-1:2010

This standard is intended for the quality check of digital RGB image data and has the title: DIN 15708-1 Electronic still picture - Quality check of digital RGB image data - Part 1: Output on printing devices.
DIN 15708-1 includes the following link for free download of the test charts (4 reference test charts and an evaluation chart)
http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/_Referenzkeil_DIN_15708-1/

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For pages with this and additional information in different languages (internet speed >1MB/s recommended), see
index+ in English or indexDE+ in German.

Go to the main page of this TU server
index in English or indexDE in German.

Information about standard test charts of ISO, IEC, EN, and DIN
according to ISO EN DIN 9241-306:2018 for the test of display output, and for eight contrast steps in english (E), german (G), and french (F).
The test charts are on the ISO Standards Maintenance Portal in the file formats PDF, and PostScript (PS, TXT), see
http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/index.html

go to the homepage of the section: Lighting Technology of the Berlin University of Technology (TUB)
http://www.li.tu-berlin.de/

Go to one of the two homepages (copies on different servers in a new window) of the section Lighting Technology of the Berlin University of Technology:
Colorimetry and Colour Image Technology
http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/index.html or
http://color.li.tu-berlin.de/index.html

For archive information (2000-2009) of the BAM-server (2000-2018) "www.ps.bam.de" with the topic
Colorimetry and Colour Image Technology, see (A=Archive)
A/indexAE.html in English or A/indexAG.html in German.

Remarks:
All files of the server "www.ps.bam.de" are in the directory A.
There is one exeption for files and three folders which include lower case letters, for example DeXX, EeXX, FeXX with XX=00 to 99.
The folders and files with lower case letters are in the directory B
(because the TUB-internet servers did not allow both DEXX and DeXX in A). Examples in B are:
B/De.HTM in English or B/Dg.HTM in German,
B/Fe.HTM in English or B/Fg.HTM in German,
B/Fe46/Fe46.html in English or B/Fg46/Fg46.HTM in German,
B/Fe46/10L/L46e00FP.PDF in English or B/Fg46/10L/L46g00FP.PDF in German.
Examples in A are:
A/DE.HTM in English or A/DG.HTM in German.

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For this page of this TUB web site, see
index+ in English, or indexDE+ in German.

For the main page of this TUB web site (NOT archive), see
index.html in English, or indexDE.html in German.

For the archive information (2000-2009) of the BAM server "www.ps.bam.de" (2000-2018) about colour test charts, colorimetric calculations, standards, and publications, see
A/indexAE.html in English, or A/indexAG.html in German.

For similar Information of the BAM server "www.ps.bam.de" from the WBM server (WayBackMachine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20090402212108/http://www.ps.bam.de/index.html