210810 1L2L0X0A_(I), http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/AEAI.HTM oder
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For this main page with general information and special images
of the corresponding image page with 10 colour series, see
AEAI in English, AGAI in German.
For the previous main page, see AEZI in English, AGZI in German.
For the next main page, see AEBI in English, AGBI in German.
For the corresponding image page with 10 colour series, see
AEAS in English, AGAS in German.
For the previous image page, see AEZS in English, AGZS in German.
For the next image page, see AEBS in English, AGBS in German.
For links to the chapter A Colour Image Technology and Colour Management, see
Content list of chapter A: AEA_I in English or AGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter A: AEA_S in English or AGA_S in German.
Example content part AEAI of 26 parts AEAI to AEZI: AEAI in English or AGAI in German.
Example images part AEAS of 26 parts AEAS to AEZS: AEAS in English or AGAS in German.
For links to the chapter B Colour Vision and Colorimetry, see
Content list of chapter B: BEA_I in English or BGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter B: BEA_S in English or BGA_S in German.
Example content part BEAI of 26 parts BEAI to BEZI: BEAI in English or BGAI in German.
Example images part BEAS of 26 parts BEAS to BEZS: BEAS in English or BGAS in German.
For links to the chapter C Colour Spaces, Colour Differences, and Line Elements, under work, see
Content list of chapter C: CEA_I in English or CGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter C: CEA_S in English or CGA_S in German.
Example content part CEAI of 26 parts CEAI to CEZI: CEAI in English or CGAI in German.
Example images part CEAS of 26 parts CEAS to CEZS: CEAS in English or CGAS in German.
For links to the chapter D Colour Appearance, Elementary Colours, and Metrics, under work, see
Content list of chapter D: DEA_I in English or DGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter D: DEA_S in English or DGA_S in German.
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Chapter A: Colour Image Technology and Colour Management, Main part AEAI1. Introduction and goals.
2. Colour reproduction loop
The reproduction of the colour data rgb* and cmyk* of 1080 colours in the ISO file AG49 is possible after print and scan with a high precision.
Figure 1 shows the reproduction loop for this general goal.
For the download of Figure 1 in the VG-PDF format, see AEA21-4N.PDF.
In Figure 1 the abbreviation 100% Under Colour Removal (UCR) means, that all grey colours are only printed with the colorant black N, and not with three chromatic colorants C, M, and Y. If the three chromatic colorants C, M, and Y are twice as expensive as black N, then the print costs reduce with 100% UCR by up to a factor 6. In addition the important achromatic stability of the print is increased. In the case of an illuminant change a chromatic tint of the image is usually avoided.
3. ISO file AG49 according to ISO 9241-306:2018
The realisation of the colour-reproduction loop is managed with the ISO rgb*-colour file. This file is reproduced on the display and in the print by colorimetric and at the same time ergonomic criteria. A colorimetric scanner produces approximately the rgb*-colour data of the ISO-start file.
Figure 2 shows a 1MR-modification of the ISO file which is referred
in Figure 1.
For the download of Figure 2 in the VG-PDF format, see AEA21-3N.PDF.
For the download of the ISO file in the VG-PDF format, see
4. 1-Minus-Relation (1MR) for rgb and cmyk colour data
In Figure 2 all cmyk-colour data in this ISO file are changed by the 1-Minus-Relation (1MR) into rgb-colour data. For example it is valid:
r = 1 - c, g = 1 - m, b = 1 - y. 
There is software, for example Win Adobe FrameMaker V8, which does the changes according to 1MR automatically. Then the output file includes only rgb data similar as in Figure 2. The necessary second change of rgb- into cmyk-colour data is done internally by the printer manufacturers within the so called RGB printers. The intended output steering with 100% UCR is possible for proof printers in the graphical area, and with all PostScript printers A output steering by users is therefore not possible with the RGB printers in the consumer area. However, consumers request ergonomic printers with colorimetric possibilities for output steering. Methods are known and can not be applied for RGB printers.
5. Standardisation in colour-information technology: Devices and colorimetric ergonomy
Many properties of printers and displays can be tested with the standard series DIN 33872-1 to 6:2010, see
For additional ISO-test charts according to ISO/IEC 15775:1999, and ISO/IEC TR 24705:2005 see
For the ergonomic output on displays the same test charts are described according to ISO 9241-306:2018 in english, french and german with many output questions, see
Figure 3 shows the relations of many standard documents.
For the download of Figure 3 in the VG-PDF format, see EE680-3N.PDF.
Figure 4 shows the relations of many standard documents with links.
For the download of Figure 4 in the VG-PDF format, see EE681-3N.PDF.
There is free download of many of these standard documents and test charts. For a part of the German standards international standards (for example ISO/IEC DIS 19839-1 to -4) were not possible. The corresponding ISO/IEC TR 24705 was deleted in 2019.
The interests of the industry and of users are opposite, for example the industry tries to sell much colour materials. For the ergonomic output the users need usually much less colour material. A balance and steering according to the ISO net-benefit criteria seems not possible up to now.
Additional remarks and papers
Information about test charts of ISO, IEC, CEN, and DIN
according to ISO CEN 9241-306:2018 for the test of display output, and for eight contrast steps in english (E), german (G), and french (F).
The test charts are on the ISO Standards Maintenance Portal in the file formats PDF, and PostScript (PS, TXT), see
Richter, Klaus (2019), Colour Topics in the CIE and Applications, Annual conference of the German Society for Color Science (DfwG),
Leipzig, October 2019, 21 slides, 900 KB, see
Richter, Klaus (2019), Colorimetric scan, display, and print for archiving based on the ergonomic International Standard ISO 9241-306:2018 at work places, paper ARCH2019_Richter_PG_111.pdf within the book Archiving2019, Lisbon, Portugal, Society for Imaging Science and Technology.
For the application of the "anti chromatic Ostwald-Optimal colours"
see the following two reports for free download. If the first link in the standard-MLA format from the CIE web site does not work, then the second link produces the download from the WBM-archive server.
Thorstein Seim (2009), Reportership Report CIE R1-47, Hue angles of elementary colours, see (35 pages),
[ http://files.cie.co.at/526.pdf]._Internet Archive_.[ http://web.archive.org/web/20160304130704/http://files.cie.co.at/526.pdf].
Thorstein Seim (2013), Reportership Report CIE R1-57, Border between Blackish and Luminous Colours, see (23 pages),
[ http://files.cie.co.at/716_CIE%20R1-57%20Report%20Jul-13%20v.2.pdf] ._Internet Archive_.[ http://web.archive.org/web/20150413002133/http://files.cie.co.at /716_CIE%20R1-57%20Report%20Jul-13%20v.2.pdf].
Richter, Klaus (2016), Output linearization method OLM16 for displays, printers, and offset print (61 pages, 1,3 MB, Format A4) with updated links in 2019, see
The technical content of this paper is approximately equal to the Reportership Report CIE R8-09:2015. This report is freely available only for members of CIE Division 8 "Image Technology".
CIE 230:2019, Validity of formulae for prediction small colour differences, developed by CIE TC1-81 with the chairman: Richter, Klaus, see for a summary at
The last four papers include device independent rgb*-, cmyk*-, and Lab*-colour data for the definition of standard metadata. Standard metadata are necessary for the 1080 colours of the ISO-test chart AE49. Standard metadata are used for input linearization of scanners and cameras and the output linearization of printers and displays.
For output and input linearization in a general case 16,7 million (=256 x 256 x 256) colour data shall be changed to 16,7 million other data. With a laptop computer this is possible within less than a second.
The transformation table (Look_up_table) is calculated from the Lab*-measurement data of 729 (=9 x 9 x 9) colours in the rows 1 to 27 and the columns A to X of the test chart AE49, see K. Richter (2016).
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