220611 'CNAX' http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/CEA_I.HTM oder http://color.li.tu-berlin.de/CEA_I.HTM.

For links to the chapter A Colour Image Technology and Colour Management, see
Content list of chapter A: AEA_I in English or AGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter A: AEA_S in English or AGA_S in German.
Example content part AEAI of 26 parts AEAI to AEZI: AEAI in English or AGAI in German.
Example images part AEAS of 26 parts AEAS to AEZS: AEAS in English or AGAS in German.

For links to the chapter B Colour Vision and Colorimetry, see
Content list of chapter B: BEA_I in English or BGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter B: BEA_S in English or BGA_S in German.
Example content part BEAI of 26 parts BEAI to BEZI: BEAI in English or BGAI in German.
Example images part BEAS of 26 parts BEAS to BEZS: BEAS in English or BGAS in German.

For links to the chapter C Colour Spaces, Colour Differences, and Line Elements, under work, see
Content list of chapter C: CEA_I in English or CGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter C: CEA_S in English or CGA_S in German.
Example content part CEAI of 26 parts CEAI to CEZI: CEAI in English or CGAI in German.
Example images part CEAS of 26 parts CEAS to CEZS: CEAS in English or CGAS in German.

For links to the chapter D Colour Appearance, Elementary Colours, and Metrics, under work, see
Content list of chapter D: DEA_I in English or DGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter D: DEA_S in English or DGA_S in German.
Example content part DEAI of 26 parts DEAI to DEZI: DEAI in English or DGAI in German.
Example images part DEAS of 26 parts DEAS to DEZS: DEAS in English or DGAS in German.

Project title: Colour and colour vision with Ostwald, device, and elementary colours -
Antagonistic colour-vision model and properties for many applications

Chapter C: Colour Spaces, Colour Differences, and Line Elements, Main part CEA_I, under work

This web page will incude 26 main parts (I) with general information, and is under development (2021).
There will be 26 corresponding image parts (S), each with 10 figure pages.
Each of the 10 figure pages (0 to 9) includes up to 16 figures, and each with up to six formats.

Structure, content, and order of files and figures on the example chapter
Colour Vision and Colorimetry


Figure 1 shows the structure of the web site BE(A..Z)I.HTM und BE(A..Z)S.HTM.
For the download of this figure in the VG-PDF format, see AEX00-5N.PDF.

Structure, content, and order of files and figures on the web site http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de.


Figure 2 shows the structure, the content, and the order of files and figures on the web site http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de.
For the download of this figure in the VG-PDF format, see AEX0L0N1.

List of links to all main parts, and the contents of all image parts

Main part CEAI in English or CGAI in German.
Title: Line elements, colour spaces, and colour thresholds;
Comparison of LABJND and CIELAB line elements.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Line elements for achromatic colours;
3. Colour spaces and chromatic thresholds;
4. Relation of the laws of Weber-Fechner & Stevens.
5. LABJND-line elements according to CIE 230:219;
6. Comparison with CIELAB-line elements according to ISO/CIE 11664-4.

go to the image part CEAS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEBI in English or CGBI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9, A0n=1,5
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42, and additional data.

go to the image part CEBS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CECI in English or CGCI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42.

go to the image part CECS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEDI in English or CGDI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,0, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42, and additional data.

go to the image part CEDS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEEI in English or CGEI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42, and additional data.

go to the image part CEES to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEFI in English or CGFI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42.

go to the image part CEFS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEGI in English or CGGI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42, and additional data.

go to the image part CEGS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEHI in English or CGHI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1,5, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42.

go to the image part CEHS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEII in English or CGII in German.
Title: 8 basic colours RYGCBMNW and 16 grey steps,
Change of the colour data by up to 8 diplay reflexions

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Change of the colour data for 8 basic colours;
3. Change of the colour data for 16 grey steps;
4. Colour data rgb*, LabC*h and w for up to 8 reflexions.

go to the image part CEIS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEJI in English or CGJI in German.
Title: Relative antagonistic colour vision model LMS-R21, illuminant E00
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Linear sensitivities and linear differences;
calculated model data marked with dashed lines (DL);
without and with thresholds tsa=0,00 and 0,10.
3. Ten triple combinations of maximal sensitivities: (545,557,570) and;
30. (545,570,595), (520,570,620), DL;
31. (495,520,545), (470,520,570), DL;
32. (445,470,495), (420,470,520), DL;
33. (570,595,620), (520,570,620);
34. (545,570,595), (520,570,620);
35. (520,545,570), (520,570,620);
36. (495,520,545), (470,520,570);
37. (470,495,520), (470,520,570);
38. (445,470,495), (420,470,520);
39. (420,445,470), (420,470,520);
4. Figures of linear spectral sensitivities and linear differences.

go to the image part CEJS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEKI in English or CGKI in German.
Title: Relative antagonistic colour vision model LMS-R21, illuminant E00
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Logarithmic sensitivities and logarithmic differences;
calculated model data marked with dashed lines (DL);
without and with thresholds tsa=0,00 and 0,10.
3. Ten triple combinations of maximal sensitivities: (545,557,570) and;
30. (545,570,595), (520,570,620), DL;
31. (495,520,545), (470,520,570), DL;
32. (445,470,495), (420,470,520), DL;
33. (570,595,620), (520,570,620);
34. (545,570,595), (520,570,620);
35. (520,545,570), (520,570,620);
36. (495,520,545), (470,520,570);
37. (470,495,520), (470,520,570);
38. (445,470,495), (420,470,520);
39. (420,445,470), (420,470,520);
4. Figures of logarithmic spectral sensitivities and logarithmic differences.

go to the image part CEKS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CELI in English or CGLI in German.
Title: Relative antagonistic colour vision model LMS-R21, illuminant E00
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Logarithmic sensitivities and linear differences;
calculated model data marked with dashed lines (DL);
without and with thresholds tsa=0,00 and 0,10.
3. Ten triple combinations of maximal sensitivities: (545,557,570) and;
30. (545,570,595), (520,570,620), DL;
31. (495,520,545), (470,520,570), DL;
32. (445,470,495), (420,470,520), DL;
33. (570,595,620), (520,570,620);
34. (545,570,595), (520,570,620);
35. (520,545,570), (520,570,620);
36. (495,520,545), (470,520,570);
37. (470,495,520), (470,520,570);
38. (445,470,495), (420,470,520);
39. (420,445,470), (420,470,520);
4. Figures of logarithmic spectral sensitivities and linear differences.

go to the image part CELS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEMI in English or CGMI in German.
Title: Four CIE colorimetries and some relations to the antagonistic relative colorimetry R21.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Linear CIE sensitivities and CIE differences without thresholds tsa=0,00.
3. Combinations of CIE illuminant and CIE colorimetry;
30. D65 and HPE-CIE-02;
31. D65 and HPE-CIE-10;

32. E00 and HPE-CIE-02;
33. E00 and HPE-CIE-10;
34. E00 and LMS-CIE-F02;
35. E00 and LMS-CIE-F10;

36. D50 and HPE-CIE-02;
37. D50 and HPE-CIE-10;
38. D50 and LMS-CIE-F02;
39. D50 and LMS-CIE-F10.

go to the image part CEMS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CENI in English or CGNI in German.
Title: Four CIE colorimetries and some relations to the antagonistic relative colorimetry R21.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Linear CIE sensitivities and CIE differences without thresholds tsa=0,00.
3. Combinations of CIE illuminant and CIE colorimetry.
30. D65 and HPE-CIE-F02;
31. D65 and HPE-CIE-F10;

32. P00 and HPE-CIE-02;
33. P00 and HPE-CIE-10;
34. P00 and LMS-CIE-F02;
35. P00 and LMS-CIE-F10;

36. Q00 and HPE-CIE-02;
37. Q00 and HPE-CIE-10;
38. Q00 and LMS-CIE-F02;
39. Q00 and LMS-CIE-F10.

go to the image part CENS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEOI in English or CGOI in German.
Title: Four CIE colorimetries and some relations to the antagonistic relative colorimetry R21.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Linear CIE sensitivities and CIE differences without thresholds tsa=0,00.
3. Combinations of CIE illuminant and CIE colorimetry.
30. E00 and LMS-CIE-F02 with basic raltions;
31. E00 and LMS-CIE-F10 with basic relations;

32. Eight illuminants Dxx and HPE-CIE-02;
33. Eight illuminants Dxx and HPE-CIE-10;
34. Eight illuminants Dxx and LMS-CIE-F02;
35. Eight illuminants Dxx and LMS-CIE-F10;

36. Eight illuminants Pxx and HPE-CIE-02;
37. Eight illuminants Pxx and HPE-CIE-10;
38. Eight illuminants Pxx and LMS-CIE-F02;
39. Eight illuminants Pxx and LMS-CIE-F10.

go to the image part CEOS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEPI in English or CGPI in German.
Title: LMS-R21 Colour-vision model, lin[threshold]=0 & 0,04 & 0,10;
lin[sensitivity] and lin[ratio]

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Cone ratio L:M:S, saturation V;
3. Sensitivities LMV->L/V & M/V and OLM->O/L & M/L;
4. Four adaptations: 620,570,520,470 and 595,570,545,520;
5. Sensitivity 557,457,507, VNg->V/g & N/g, WN-antigonisme;
6. Sensitivity 570,470,520, LBG->L/G & B/G, YB-antigonisme.
go to the image part CEPS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEQI in English or CGQI in German.
Title: LMS-R21 Colour-vision model, lin[threshold]=0 & 0,04 & 0,10;
log[sensitivity] and log[ratio]

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Cone ratio L:M:S, saturation V;
3. Sensitivities LMV->L/V & M/V and OLM->O/L & M/L;
4. Four adaptations: 620,570,520,470 and 595,570,545,520;
5. Sensitivity 557,457,507, VNg->V/g & N/g, WN-antigonisme;
6. Sensitivity 570,470,520, LBG->L/G & B/G, YB-antigonisme.
go to the image part CEQS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CERI in English or CGRI in German.
Title: LMS-R21 Colour-vision model, lin[threshold]=0 & 0,04 & 0,10;
lin & log [sensitivity & ratio]

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Cone ratio L:M:S, saturation V;
3. Sensitivities LMV->L/V & M/V and OLM->O/L & M/L;
4. Four adaptations: 620,570,520,470 and 595,570,545,520;
5. Sensitivity 557,457,507, VNg->V/g & N/g, WN-antigonisme;
6. Sensitivity 570,470,520, LBG->L/G & B/G, YB-antigonisme.
go to the image part CERS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CESI in English or CGSI in German.
Title: Special properties of colour vision;
Lightness, threshold, sensitivity and contrast functions

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Basic functions for visual thresholds and attributes;
3. Logarithmic and linear functions of colour vision attributes;
3. CIELAB, CIEDE2000, and LABJND colour-difference formulae;
4. Comparison results of the different formulae;
5. Short time and long time viewing of colour samples.
go to the image part CESS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CETI in English or CGTI in German.
Title: Special properties of colour vision;
Input and output linearization with ISO-colour files;
Lightness, threshold, sensitivity and contrast functions

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Basic functions for visual thresholds and attributes;
3. Logarithmic and linear functions of colour vision attributes;
3. CIELAB, CIEDE2000, and LABJND colour-difference formulae;
4. Comparison results of the different formulae;
5. Use of ISO files according to ISO 9241-306:2019 and ISO/IEC 15775:2022;
6. Input and output linearisation: ISO file -> print -> scan -> ISO file.
go to the image part CETS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEUI in English or CGUI in German.
Title: Colour thresholds and line elements in 10 colour spaces LABJNDu0 to 9, A0n=1/1,5
1. Introduction and goals;
2. Modifications LABJNDu0 to 9 of the colour difference formula LABJND according to CIE 230:2019;
3. Corresponding line elements for the experimental contrast Y/(delta Y);
4. Absolute lightness L* (CIE 15) and T* (IEC sRGB) and relative lightness l* and t*;
5. Logarithmic and linear figures for L*, T*, l* and t*;
6. Logarithmic figures for threshold delta Y, sensitivity (delta Y)/Y, and contrast Y/(delta Y);
7. Parameters: A0n=1/1,5, A1n=sv*cx, A2n=cv*cx, sv=0,0170, cv=0,0058, cx=1,00;
8. Variations cx=0,84, 0,67 und 0,42, and additional data.

go to the image part CEUS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEVI in English or CGVI in German.
Title: Availability of ISO- and ISO/IEC-colour test charts according to ISO/IEC 15775:2022 and ISO 9241-306:2018;
Wavelength ranges of Ostwald colours, reflecions for 6 contrasts and antagonistic colour attributes.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Availability and applications of ISO- and ISO/IEC-colour test charts;
3. Wavelength ranges of Ostwald colours;
4. Standard reflection R, relative reflection R1 and log(R1);
5. Triangle lightness T*;
6. Antagonistic reflections of Ostwald colours for 6 contrasts;
7. Antagonistic physiological +-signals and colour attributes.
go to the image part CEVS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEWI in English or CGWI in German.

Title: Hue circle of Ostwald-optimal colours;
YN=0, YW=100, for CIE standard illuminant D65 or illuminant P60 (6000K);
XYZ, YABCh, YABCh1, and YABCh2 data;
Data for the CIE 02 and 10 degree observer in 8 colour diagrams;
Three elementary-colour systems;
Spectral properties of optimal and surface colours;
Space coordinates: device, optimal, and Arens colours.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Hue circle of Ostwald-optimal colours;
2.1 YN=0, YW=100, CIE standard illuminants D65, CIE 02 degree observer;
XYZ data and 8 colour diagrams; Data YABCh, YABCh1 and YABCh2 as table with wavelength
2.2 similar for CIE standard illuminant D65, CIE 10 degree observer;
2.3 similar for CIE illuminants P60 (6000K), CIE 02 degree observer;
3. Three elementary-colour systems
Spectral properties of optimal and surface colours;
Space coordinates: device, optimal, and Arens colours.

go to the image part CEWS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEXI in English or CGXI in German.

Title: Ostwald-optimal colours;
YN=0, YW=100, for eight illuminants Dxx or Pxx;
XYZ, YABCh, YABCh1, and YABCh2 data;
Data for the CIE 02 and 10 degree observer in 8 colour diagrams;
Chromatic adaptation model for 8 Planck radiations.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Ostwald-optimal colours;
2.1 YN=0, YW=100, 8 illuminants Dxx, CIE 02 degree observer;
XYZ data and 8 colour diagrams; Data YABCh, YABCh1 and YABCh2 as table with wavelength;
2.2 similar for 8 illuminants Dxx, CIE 10 degree observer;
2.3 similar for 8 illuminants Pxx, CIE 02 degree observer;
3. Chromatic adaptation model
Ostwald-optimal colours for 8 Planck radiations Pxx with
8 correlated colour temperatures between 6000K (P60) and 2500K (P25).

go to the image part CEXS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEYI in English or CGYI in German.
Title: CIEXYZ and LABJND data of YB(Yellow-Blue) and GM (Green-Magenta) optimal colours for 8 Dxx and 8 Pxx illuminants
1. Introduction and goals;
2. YB and GM data for 8 Dxx and 8 Pxx illuminants;
3. CIE 2 and 10 degree observer, CIEXYZ, LABJND, and CIELAB data;
4. YABCabh1&2 data, wavelength lambda(1,2,d,c) of Ostwald colours;
5. Definition of wavelength lambda1 (CEY0 to CEY3);
6. Definition of wavelength lambda1 and lambda2 (CEY4 to CEY9);
7. Performance of the calculation of lambda(2,d,c);
8. Application for the four elemetary colours RJGB.
go to the image part CEYS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part CEZI in English or CGZI in German.
Title: Technology of images with the programming language PostScript;
Combining images (rectangle layout) to new images.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Examples of new images in different layout;
3. Rectangular and hue circle presentation;
4. Application for the Ostwald hue circle;
5. Standard reflection R, relative reflection R1=R/0,18 and log(R1).
6. Wavelength limits and XYZ data of Ostwald colours for 8 illuminants.
7. Chromatic values (A, B), (A1, B1), and (A2, B2) of Ostwald colours.
go to the image part CEZS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


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For the start TUB web site (not archive), see
index.html in English, indexDE.html in German.

For the archive information (2000-2009) of the BAM server "www.ps.bam.de" (2000-2018)
about colour test charts, colorimetric calculations, standards, and publications, see
indexAE.html in English, indexAG.html in German.