221201 'DNAX' http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de/DEA_I.HTM oder http://color.li.tu-berlin.de/DEA_I.HTM.

For links to the chapter A Colour Image Technology and Colour Management, see
Content list of chapter A: AEA_I in English or AGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter A: AEA_S in English or AGA_S in German.
Example content part AEAI of 26 parts AEAI to AEZI: AEAI in English or AGAI in German.
Example images part AEAS of 26 parts AEAS to AEZS: AEAS in English or AGAS in German.

For links to the chapter B Colour Vision and Colorimetry, see
Content list of chapter B: BEA_I in English or BGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter B: BEA_S in English or BGA_S in German.
Example content part BEAI of 26 parts BEAI to BEZI: BEAI in English or BGAI in German.
Example images part BEAS of 26 parts BEAS to BEZS: BEAS in English or BGAS in German.

For links to the chapter C Colour Spaces, Colour Differences, and Line Elements, see
Content list of chapter C: CEA_I in English or CGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter C: CEA_S in English or CGA_S in German.
Example content part CEAI of 26 parts CEAI to CEZI: CEAI in English or CGAI in German.
Example images part CEAS of 26 parts CEAS to CEZS: CEAS in English or CGAS in German.

For links to the chapter D Colour Appearance, Elementary Colours, and Metrics, see
Content list of chapter D: DEA_I in English or DGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter D: DEA_S in English or DGA_S in German.
Example content part DEAI of 26 parts DEAI to DEZI: DEAI in English or DGAI in German.
Example images part DEAS of 26 parts DEAS to DEZS: DEAS in English or DGAS in German.

For links to the chapter E Colour Metrics, Differences and Appearance, under work, see
Content list of chapter E: EEA_I in English or EGA_I in German.
Summary of chapter E: EEA_S in English or EGA_S in German.
Example content part EEAI of 26 parts EEAI to EEZI: EEAI in English or EGAI in German.
Example images part EEAS of 26 parts EEAS to EEZS: EEAS in English or EGAS in German.

Project title: Colour and colour vision with Ostwald, device, and elementary colours -
Antagonistic colour-vision model and properties for many applications

Chapter D: Colour Appearance, Elementary Colours, and Metrics, Main part DEA_I, under work

This web page will incude 26 main parts (I) with general information, and is under development (2021).
There will be 26 corresponding image parts (S), each with 10 figure pages.
Each of the 10 figure pages (0 to 9) includes up to 16 figures, and each with up to six formats.

Structure, content, and order of files and figures on the example chapter
Colour Vision and Colorimetry


Figure 1 shows the structure of the web site BE(A..Z)I.HTM und BE(A..Z)S.HTM.
For the download of this figure in the VG-PDF format, see AEX00-5N.PDF.

Structure, content, and order of files and figures on the web site http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de.


Figure 2 shows the structure, the content, and the order of files and figures on the web site http://farbe.li.tu-berlin.de.
For the download of this figure in the VG-PDF format, see AEX0L0N1.

List of links to all main parts, and the contents of all image parts

Main part DEAI in English or DGAI in German.
Title: Colour metrics for light and colour as function of the relative luminance L/Lu (Lu=surround luminance)
Experimental data and model functions Q/Fab(xr).

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Experimental data from a book for xr=log(L/Lu);
3. Response functions Q/Fab[e^(xr/a) or 10^(xr/a')] with a'=a ln(10).
4. Deviations of the response functions for luminance discrimination.
5. Antichromatic models of colour vision.
6. Receptor sensitivity for achromatic colours.
7. Logarithmic and linear models for combinations of the sensitivities.
go to the image part DEAS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEBI in English or DGBI in German.
Title: Colour metrics for light and colour as function of the relative luminance L/Lu (Lu=surround luminance)
Experimental data and model function Qab(xr).

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Experimental data from a book for xr=log(L/Lu);
3. Response functions Q/Fab[e^(xr/a) or 10^(xr/a')] with a'=a ln(10).
4. Derivations of the response functions for luminance discrimination.
go to the image part DEBS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DECI in English or DGCI in German.
Title: Colour metrics for light and colour as function of the relative luminance L/Lu (Lu=surround luminance)
Experimental data and model functions Fab(xr).

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Experimental data from a book for xr=log(L/Lu);
3. Response functions Q/Fab[e^(xr/a) or 10^(xr/a')] with a'=a ln(10).
4. Derivations of the response functions for luminance discrimination.
go to the image part DECS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEDI in English or DGDI in German.
Title: Proposal for ISO-test charts for colour copiers according to ISO/IEC 15775
ISO-layout (no. 1 to 3), ISO-test charts (no. 4 to 7), Output linearization with 1080 colours, Intended and measured CIELAB data.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. First edition in 1999 and intended edition 2 in 2022.
3. Versions in PostScript and PDF.
4. Versions in the languages English (E), German (G), and French (F).
5. Versions in four different resolutions 192x128, 384x256, 768x512, 1536x1024.
6. Use of ISO-test chart AE49 with 1080 colours according to ISO 9241-306:2018 for output linearization.
7. Intended and produced CIELAB colours and differences in standard offset printing for the ISO/CIE-standard illuminant D65, the 45/0 geometrie, and the 2-degree observer.

go to the image part DEDS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEEI in English or DGEI in German.
Title: Proposal for ISO-test charts for colour copiers according to ISO/IEC 15775
Chromatic ISO-test charts no. 2 and 4 in three resolutions, Output linearization of 1080 colours, and of the flower motif, Intended and measured rgb* and CIELAB data.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. ISO-test charts in the languages English (E), German (G), and French (F).
3. ISO-test charts with flower motif in three resolutions 384x256, 768x512, 1536x1024.
4. Output linearization of 1080 colours and of the flower motif 5. Intended and produced rgb* and CIELAB colours and differences in standard offset printing for the CIE illuminant D50, the 45/0 geometrie, and the 2-degree observer.

go to the image part DEES to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEFI in English or DGFI in German.
Title: Three CIE standard illuminants D65, D50, and A
for the calculation of the Ostwald-optimal colours for CIE 02-degree;
complementary optimal colours with antagonistic tristimulues values
X, Y, Z, and Xw-X, Yw-Y, Zw-Z
in the CIE chromaticity diagram (x, y), and
colorimetric chromaticity and chromatic values diagrams.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Relative sprectral radiation of the 3 illuminants D65, D50, and A.
3. Wavelength ranges of the Ostwald colours for D65, D50, and A.
4. Calculations of tristimulues values X, Y, Z, and Xw-X, Yw-Y, Zw-Z, as well as
wavelength limits, dominant and complementary wavelength.
5. Alternative starting wavelength limits compared to the preferred limits.
6. Equal chromatic values for the antagonistic colour pairs
R-C, Y-B und G-M
in the chromatic value diagram (A2, B2),
and comparison with CIELAB chroma.
go to the image part DEFS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEGI in English or DGGI in German.
Title: Colour metrics for light and colour as function of the relative luminance L/Lu (Lu=surround luminance)
Experimental data and model function Qab(xr).

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Experimental data from a book for xr=log(L/Lu);
3. Response functions Q/Fab[e^(xr/a) or 10^(xr/a')] with a'=a ln(10).
4. Deviations of the response functions for luminance discrimination.
go to the image part DEGS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEHI in English or DGHI in German.
Title: Colour metrics for light and colour as function of the relative luminance L/Lu (Lu=surround luminance)
Experimental data and model functions Fab(xr).

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Experimental data from a book for xr=log(L/Lu);
3. Response functions Q/Fab[e^(xr/a) or 10^(xr/a')] with a'=a ln(10).
4. Deviations of the response functions for luminance discrimination.
go to the image part DEHS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEII in English or DGII in German.
Title: Proposal for ISO-test charts for colour copiers according to ISO/IEC 15775
ISO-layout (no. 1 to 3), ISO-test charts (no. 4 to 7), Output linearization with 1080 colours, Intended and measured CIELAB data.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. First edition in 1999 and intended edition 2 in 2022.
3. Versions in PostScript and PDF.
4. Versions in the languages English (E), German (G), and French (F).
5. Versions in only the resolution 768x512.
6. Use of ISO-test chart AE49 with 1080 colours according to ISO 9241-306:2018 for output linearization, not realized.
7. Intended and produced CIELAB colours and differences in standard offset printing for the ISO/CIE-standard illuminant D65, the 45/0 geometrie, and the 2-degree observer, not realized.
go to the image part DEIS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEJI in English or DGJI in German.
Title: Three CIE standard illuminants D65, D50, and A
for the calculation of the Ostwald-optimal colours for CIE 10-degree;
complementary optimal colours with antagonistic tristimulues values
X10, Y10, Z10, and X10w-X10, Y10w-Y10, Z10w-Z10
in the CIE chromaticity diagram (x10, y10), and
colorimetric chromaticity and chromatic values diagrams.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Relative sprectral radiation of the 3 illuminants D65, D50, and A.
3. Wavelength ranges of the Ostwald colours for D65, D50, and A.
4. Calculations of tristimulues values X10, Y10, Z10, and X10w-X10, Y10w-Y10, Z10w-Z10, as well as
wavelength limits, dominant and complementary wavelength.
5. Alternative starting wavelength limits compared to the preferred limits.
6. Equal chromatic values for the antagonistic colour pairs
R-C, Y-B und G-M
in the chromatic value diagram (A2,10, B2,10),
and comparison with CIELAB chroma.
go to the image part DEJS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEKI in English or DGKI in German.
Title: Technology for the change of vector to pixel graphic,
Input-output relationship between CIE L* and rgb*,
Transfer analog-digital ad_rgbd*' and digital-analog da_rgbd*.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. ISO/IEC-flower motiv with 192x128 pixel; see
http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/index.html or
http://standards.iso.org/iso-iec/15775/ed-2/en/index.html;
3. Input-output relationship between CIE lightness L* and
8bit rgbd* data for slide film (sf) and negative film (nf);
4. Data ad_rgbd*' (d=device) between under and over exposure;
5. Raw scan and size change of image according to ISO/IEC 15775 and ISO 9241-306;
6. Grid for capture of hex data;
7. Use of hex data for the linearized output;
8. Applications.
go to the image part DEKS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DELI in English or DGLI in German.
Title: Technology for the change of vector to pixel graphic,
Input-output relationship between CIE L* and rgb*,
Transfer analog-digital ad_rgbd*' and digital-analog da_rgbd*.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. ISO/IEC-flower motiv with 384x256 pixel; see
http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/index.html or
http://standards.iso.org/iso-iec/15775/ed-2/en/index.html;
3. Input-output relationship between CIE lightness L* and
8bit rgbd* data for slide film (sf) and negative film (nf);
4. Data ad_rgbd*' (d=device) between under and over exposure;
5. Raw scan and size change of image according to ISO/IEC 15775 and ISO 9241-306;
6. Grid for capture of hex data;
7. Use of hex data for the linearized output;
8. Applications.
go to the image part DELS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEMI in English or DGMI in German.
Title: Technology for the change of vector to pixel graphic,
Input-output relationship between CIE L* and rgb*,
Transfer analog-digital ad_rgbd*' and digital-analog da_rgbd*.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. ISO/IEC-flower motiv with 784x512 pixel; see
http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/index.html or
http://standards.iso.org/iso-iec/15775/ed-2/en/index.html;
3. Input-output relationship between CIE lightness L* and
8bit rgbd* data for slide film (sf) and negative film (nf);
4. Data ad_rgbd*' (d=device) between under and over exposure;
5. Raw scan and size change of image according to ISO/IEC 15775 and ISO 9241-306;
6. Grid for capture of hex data;
7. Use of hex data for the linearized output;
8. Applications.
go to the image part DEMS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DENI in English or DGNI in German.
Title: Linearization of scan or photographic images
Image capture of the 1080 colours according to ISO 9241-306:2018
Captured analog-digital data ad_rgbd*' and transfered
digital-analog data da_rgbd* similar to the original
ISO data rgb*.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. 1080 ISO-colours according to ISO 9241-306:2018 in vector graphic; see
http://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/AE49/AE49.HTM;
3. Original ISO file with 1080 data rgb* in the format decimal and hex;
4. Data modification ad_rgbd*' (d=device) for gamma values 0,475<=gp<=2,105;
5. Modified ISO file with grid for capture of hex data;
6. Transfer of data ad_rgbd*' to da_rgbd* for the linearized output;
7. PDF and EPS scan file of the analog test chart similar to ISO/IEC 15775 with 1080 hex data ad_rgbd*';
8. PDF and EPS-scan file with grid for capture of hex data;
9. Linearized EPS and PDF Scan file with data da_rgbd* similar to the original data rgb* of the ISO file according to ISO 9241-306;
10. Applications.
go to the image part DENS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEOI in English or DGOI in German.
Title: Colourimetric data in chromaticity and chromatic values diagrams,
MacAdam ellipsis, Munsell and OSA data for lightness Value V=1,2,5,8,9.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. MacAdam ellipsis, illuminant E, 2-degree observer;
3. OSA colour order system, illuminant D65, 10-degree observer;
4. Munsell colour order system, illuminant C, 2-degree observer;
5. Four chromaticity and chromatic value diagrams.
go to the image part DEOS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEPI in English or DGPI in German.
Title: Colourimetric data in chromaticity and chromatic values diagrams,
Munsell and OSA data for lightness Value V=1,2,5,8,9.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. OSA colour order system, illuminant D65, 10-degree observer;
3. Munsell colour order system, illuminant C, 2-degree observer;
4. Four or eight chromaticity diagrams or chromatic value diagrams.
go to the image part DEPS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEQI in English or DGQI in German.
Title: Line elements, colour spaces, and colour thresholds;
Comparison of LABJND and CIELAB line elements;
Display thresholds and scaling between black and white according to ISO 9241-306.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Line elements for achromatic colours;
3. Colour spaces and chromatic thresholds;
4. Relation of the laws of Weber-Fechner & Stevens.
5. LABJND-line elements according to CIE 230:219;
6. Comparison with CIELAB-line elements according to ISO/CIE 11664-4;
7. Eight display reflections of the ambient light according to ISO 9241-306;
8. Display thresholds and scaling between black N and white W.
go to the image part DEQS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DERI in English or DGRI in German.
Title: Technology for a gamma change of image files of the standard size A4L with PostScript.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Step recognition for changes of the illumination and viewing angles and mirror reflection.
3. Test chart for the dark room with the ISO-contrast step CYP8.
4. Test chart for the standard office with the ISO-contrast step CYP5.
5. Test chart for the standard office with 15 ISO-contrast steps CYP1 to CYP15.
6. Frame file in VG and ISO-AE49 file in VG.
7. Frame file in VG and ISO-AE49 file in PG.
8. Whole frame file and ISO-AE49 file in PG.
go to the image part DERS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DESI in English or DGSI in German.
Title: Chromatic adaptation model TUBLAB2 and hue threshold,
chromatic values of Ostwald colours for three contrasts,
wavelength limits and chromatic values for two contrasts

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Chromatic adaptation models TUBLAB1 and TUBLAB2
for four illuminants D65, D50, A, and E;
3. Chromatic values and hue thresholds dhA2B2=6, 12, and 18
for four illuminants D65, D50, A, and E,
and three contrasts C=25:1, 8:1, and 2:1;
4. Wavelength limits of 6 Ostwald colours with hue thresholds
dhA2B2=6 and 18, contrast C=25:1 and 2:1.
go to the image part DESS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DETI in English or DGTI in German.
Title: Complementary Ostwald-optimal colours, YB1 and GM1 data for 8 Dxx and 8 Pxx iluminants,
for four CIE observers, for three TUBLAB and the CIELAB colour space.

1. Introduction and goals;
2. Ostwald optimal colours of 2 complementary parts Yellow-Blue (YB1: 495_770 & 380_495) and Green-Magenta (GM1: 470_570 & 570_470);
3. Data for four CIE observers: 02, 10, F02, F10;
4. Data for four colour spaces: YCAB, YCAB1, YCAB2, LC*ab (CIELAB).
go to the image part DETS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEUI in English or DGUI in German.
Title: Complementary Ostwald-optimal colours, YB and GM data for 8 Dxx and 8 Pxx iluminants,
for four CIE observers, for three TUBLAB and the CIELAB colour space.

1. Introduction and goals;
2. Ostwald optimal colours of 2 complementary parts Yellow-Blue (YB: 520_770 & 380_520) and Green-Magenta (GM: 475_575 & 575_475);
3. Data for four CIE observers: 02, 10, F02, F10;
4. Data for four colour spaces: YCAB, YCAB1, YCAB2, LC*ab (CIELAB).
go to the image part DEUS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEVI in English or DGVI in German.
Title: Chromatic adaptation model TUBLAB2 and hue threshold, similar chromatic values of sRGB and Ostwald colours, HPE transfer between XYZ and LMS(PDT).
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Chromatic adaptation model for eight illuminants Pxx (Planck) and Dxx (Daylight);
3. Similar chromatic values (A2, B2) of the sRGB-display colours, and the Ostwald colours;
4. Hunt-Pointer-Esteves (HPE) transfer between XYZ and LMS(PDT) in both directions;
5. Chromatic adaptation model TUBLAB2, hue threshold dhA2B2=6, eigth illuminants Pxx (Planck) and Dxx (Daylight);
6. Wavelenght limits of 6 Ostwald colours with hue thresholds dhA2B2=6 and 18, contrast C=25:1 and 2:1.
go to the image part DEVS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEWI in English or DGWI in German.
Title: Wavelength ranges of Ostwald colours of equal blackness N*, reflections for the contrast C=25:1, and antagonistic physiological +-signals.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Wavelength ranges of six Ostwald colours;
3. Eigen (e) and antagonistic (a) Ostwald colours;
4. Standard reflection R, relative reflection Rr=R/0,180 (index r=relative), and Rs=log(Rr) (index s=sensation);
5. Triangle lightness T*TUB, Blackness N* (index n), and Whiteness W* (index w);
6. Antagonistic reflections of Ostwald colours for the contrast C=25:1;
7. Antagonistic physiological +-signals and colour attributes.
go to the image part DEWS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEXI in English or DGXI in German.
Title: Wavelength ranges of Ostwald colours of equal whiteness W*, reflections for the contrast C=25:1, and antagonistic physiological +-signals.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Wavelength ranges of six Ostwald colours;
3. Eigen (e) and antagonistic (a) Ostwald colours;
4. Standard reflection R, relative reflection Rr=R/0,180 (index r=relative), and Rs=log(Rr) (index s=sensation);
5. Triangle lightness T*TUB, Blackness N* (index n), and Whiteness W* (index w);
6. Antagonistic reflections of Ostwald colours for the contrast C=25:1;
7. Antagonistic physiological +-signals and colour attributes.
go to the image part DEXS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEYI in English or DGYI in German.
Title: Antagonistic colour attributes and scaling of N*, I*, W*, T*, C*, and A*.
1. Introduction and goals.
2. Colour attributes Blackness N*, whiteness W*, Chromaticness C*, and the antagonistic attributes I*, T*, and A*.
3. Antagonistic optimal colours of a colour half.
4. Colour vectors of the antagonistic TUB-colour vision model and relation with nonlinear colour attributes.
go to the image part DEYS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


Main part DEZI in English or DGZI in German.
Title: Image creation from images;
Combination of 4x4 or 4x7 images to 4 new images.

1. Introduction and goals.
2. Creation of new images by the programming language PostScript;
3. Creation of new images in a rectangular or circular layout;
4. Applications of the circular layout for hue circles.
go to the image part DEZS to study the 10 image pages and the content.


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For the start TUB web site (not archive), see
index.html in English, indexDE.html in German.

For the archive information (2000-2009) of the BAM server "www.ps.bam.de" (2000-2018)
about colour test charts, colorimetric calculations, standards, and publications, see
indexAE.html in English, indexAG.html in German.